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Technical Article


PCB Fabrication: Different Techniques for Plating

Time:2017-04-20 10:02:24 Click:

The hole-wall will obtain electro-less copper as well as about 0.025 mm (0.001 inch) of electroplated copper on through-hole PCBs that are plated. External lines will obtain about 0.025 mm (0.001 inch) of copper plating, using copper electroplating methodology, on top of the initial 0.5 or 1.0 ounces of copper foil that already exists. 

Depending on the requirements that must be adhered before or after the solder mask, all bare circuit elements must be protected by the following approved list of finishes:
▪ Immersion Silver
▪ Usual coating thickness: 0.20 µm (0.00007 in) to 0.50 µm (0.0002 in)
▪ Superior ability for soldering
▪ Superior surface coplanarity
▪ Superior way to obtain uniform hole sizes
▪ Good for using in fine-pitch part technology
▪ Good for surface contrast – assembly vision ability
▪ PCB is not subjected to thermal shock (as with HASL)
▪ Good for “Pb Free” soldering

Nickel: Hard Gold
▪ Usual thickness: 0.7 µm (0.00003”) to 1.3 µm (0.00005”) gold (99.7%) over 5.0
▪ µm (0.0002”) nickel or 0.2 µm (0.000008”) to 0.3 µm (0.00001”) gold (99.7%) over
▪ 5.0 µm (0.0002”) nickel for a solderable surface
▪ Very good for corrosion resistance
▪ Rated at 130-220 Knoop hardness
▪ Very good wear resistance
▪ Excellent for surface rotary switches, on-off contacts, and edge connectors
▪ Very good shelf life

Nickel: Soft Gold
▪ Usual thickness: 0.7 µm (0.00003 in) to 1.3 µm (0.00005 in) gold (99.9 percent) over 5.0
▪ µm (0.0002 in) nickel
▪ Very good corrosion resistance
▪ Below 90 Knoop hardness
▪ Well suited for pressure contacts and aluminum or gold-wire bonding
▪ Average wear resistance
▪ Very good shelf life

Electroless Nickel or Immersion Gold (99.9 percent Gold)
▪ Usual thickness is 0.08 µm or 0.000003 inch to 0.2 µm or 0.000008 inch gold over 0.5 µm or 0.0002 inch nickel
▪ Superior resistance from corrosion
▪ Adequate for aluminum wire bonding
▪ Very Good for the use of fine pitch technology
▪ Superior ability for soldering
▪ Very good shelf life

HASL (Eutectic; 63 percent Tin to 37 percent Pb
▪ Usual coating thickness is 0.8 µm (0.000003 in) to 5 µm (0.0002 in); dependent upon the design
▪ Very good ability for soldering
▪ 0.635 mm (0.025 in) surface mount pitch or greater ability
▪ 0.75mm (0.030 in) is the minimum board thickness ability
▪ Adequate shelf life

Anti-Tarnish / Preservative for Organic Solder-ability
▪ Usual coating thickness: 0.2 µm (0.000008 in) – 0.5 µm (0.0002 in)
▪ Good ability for soldering
▪ Very well suited for surface coplanarity and uniformity of the size of the hole
▪ Very good for fine-pitch technology
▪ Better surface contrast – capability for assembly vision
▪ PCB does not experience thermal shock (as with HASL)
▪ Adequate shelf life (1 year)

Matte Tin (Nickel)
▪ Usual thickness is 7.6 µm (0.0003 in) Tin above 12.7 µm (0.0005 in) of nickel
▪ Surface can be soldered
▪ Adequate life on shelf

Previous:DFM Validation for PCB Assembly

Next:PCB Fabrication: Dimensions of the Drill’s Highest and Lowest Diameter


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